Information architecture (IA) focuses on organizing, structuring, and labeling content in an effective and sustainable way. The goal is to help users find information and complete tasks.
To be successful, you need a diverse understanding of industry standards for creating, storing, accessing and presenting information. Lou Rosenfeld and Peter Morville in their book, Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, note that the main components of IA:
1. Organization Schemes and Structures: How you categorize and structure information
2. Labeling Systems: How you represent information
3. Navigation Systems: How users browse or move through information
HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) is a protocol for encrypting information and then exchanging it in a secure way.
With HTTPS if anyone in between the sender and the recipient could open the message, they still could not understand it. Only the sender and the recipient, who know the “code,” can decipher the message.
The computer at each end uses a document called an “SSL Certificate” containing character strings that are the keys to their secret “codes.” SSL certificates contain the computer owner’s “public key.”
The owner shares the public key with anyone who needs it. Other users need the public key to encrypt messages to the owner. The owner sends those users the SSL certificate, which contains the public key. The owner does not share the private key with anyone.
A Web server is a program that uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol(HTTP) to serve the files to users, in response to their requests which are forwarded by HTTP clients on their machine.
The requests are sent by client programs at users end. The client may be a web browser client like (Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Microsoft Edge or Apple’s Safari) or it can be an Api development and testing programs like (SoapUI, Katalon studio or Postman)
Some of the popular and most widely used web server tools are Nginx, Apache and Microsoft IIS.
A user can continue to use the application while the client program requests information from the server in the background.
It is mostly used in Rich Internet Applications(RIA).
Teachers and professors who are
talking to Generation Z students in their classroom, cannot afford to only
depend on conventional pedagogy. They must incorporate eLearning and mobile
learning into their curriculum to ensure learner engagement and retention. It
is important to note that instructional design principles for these new-age
teaching techniques may be slightly different from what is conventionally used.
If you are not well acquainted with these principles already, here is a list of instructional design principles that you can use when setting up your eLearning courses.
Your content should be structured such
that it is interactive and requires learner participation. Methods to do so
storytelling in your content. Quests, treasure hunts and journey of a hero are
some examples of stories that are simple and yet, engaging
content with questions that act as knowledge checks as well as those that seek
the learners’ opinions
interactive content templates that reward the learner for an action that he takes.
For example, make learners click on an image to learn more on what the image
relief through the usage of image-based content or videos. Ensure you include
videos of about 5-7 minutes in every hour of content you put out. Use visuals
in every 1 of 3 slides.
If your LMS offers the use of forums or social learning, make sure you facilitate their usage.
Principle 2: Provide learners with a clear set of objectives that the course will meet
Imagine playing soccer without a clear
goalpost or basketball without a hoop. Ridiculous, right? People respond better
when they are aware of the end-goal that they are looking to reach. Once you
provide objectives to your online course, the learner becomes aware of where
she is and how far she needs to go to meet them.
Things to do to provide objectives
Before providing any instructions, define what the course/ module will achieve and what topics and sub-topics it will cover
Do not forget to mention why the course topic is important and how students can apply learnings
Clearly put down what the minimum required performance for the online course is. This will include the percentage of content slides that need to be consumed and the minimum score that the learner must get in the assessment associated with the online course/module
Principle 3: Stimulate recall of prior learning
Help students comprehend new
information by relating it to something they already know or that they have
Methods for stimulating recall
Use anecdotes that help create analogies between what is being taught in the course and real-life scenarios
Ask questions to remind users of things they know where they use the concepts being taught. For example, when teaching Newton’s third law, show a visual of things hitting each other and moving back and ask learners why they think this is happening
Ask students questions that assess their understanding of previous concepts. In this case, if a learner is unable to answer a question correctly, she will tend to go back and brush up on her knowledge
Principle 4: Present the content in logical consumable blocks
Use strategies to present and cue
lesson content to provide more effective, efficient instruction. Organize and
chunk content in a meaningful way. Provide explanations after demonstrations.
Things to make content logical and consumable include:
Follow a simple pattern for content presentation – Definition, Description, Explanation and Evaluation. To explain any concept in eLearning this 4-step process works very well. You may sometimes choose to play around with this flow but always include all 4 steps.
Before getting into detailed understanding of content, include an index of key terms. This will help your learner comprehend the content better
Use examples generously to facilitate better understanding and retention
Present multiple versions of the same content. You can bolster concepts covered in decks using video, reference documents, interactive content, voice over media, etc. This addresses different learning preferences for different learners
Principle 5: Provide feedback
Provide immediate feedback of
students’ performance to assess and facilitate eLearning.
Types of feedback include:
feedback – Informs students they had done what were supposed to do. For
example, you could thank them for answering a survey question
and remedial feedback – Informs students of the accuracy of their response to
something. For example, informing them that they had answered a question
feedback – Directs students in the right direction to find the correct answer
but does not provide the correct answer
Analytical feedback – Provides the student with suggestions, recommendations, and information for them to correct their performance
Principle 6: Assess performance
In order to evaluate the effectiveness
of the instructional events, you must test to see if the expected learning
outcomes have been achieved. Performance should be based on objectives that
have previously been stated.
Methods for testing learning include:
baselining exercise with a pre-test before exposing the learning content.
final assessment at the end of the online course. The average score on this
will be higher, for well-presented and consumed content, than the average
pre-test score. This score can also be looked at on a stand-alone basis to
assess the student’s mastery of the subject
questions in the content through individual questions or small quizzes
objective or criterion-referenced performances which measure how well a student
has learned or understood a topic
normative-referenced performances which compares one student to another student
Principle 7: Enhance retention
To help learners develop expertise,
they must internalize new knowledge.